1. Hatchability is more than mere fertility. It is a combination of two factors, fertility and viability, the strength of spark of life. The first essential to maximum hatchability is the quality of egg itself. Egg quality is first determined in the flock by :
    • Those inherited characteristics which affect hatchability
    • Nutrition and
    • The quality of flock management and the health of the flock.
  2. Initial egg quality, however essential though, is beyond our scope as manufacturers of incubators. It is equally important as to what happens to the egg between the time it is laid and the time it is placed in the incubator. If initial qualities of fertility and viability are to be preserved, then proper cooling, good sanitation, cleanliness, careful handling and storage (small end down) at correct temperature and humidity, under proper conditions, and for not over a safe length of time, are the various factors which have to be observed and followed.


  1. For maximum results, it is important that proper facilities be provided both on the farm and hatchery for holding hatching eggs, under correct levels of temperature and humidity.
  2. Chicken eggs should be stored between 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. 55 degrees F is generally considered the best. Some experimental results have indicated that 50 degrees is the best, if the eggs are to be held longer than two days and 55 degrees, if these are to be held for less than 2 days.
  3. Temperature below 50 degrees and above 70 degrees is harmful. Hatchability sharply declines after holding eggs under such conditions, even for, as little periods as two or three days or even less.
  4. Adequate humidity in the egg holding room is of extreme importance. 75% to 80% (i.e. 47 to 55 degrees FWB) is safe level. Too low level of humidity can contribute to the development of molds, rots and exploders.
  5. If the eggs are to be held longer than a week, these should be turned daily. It may not be necessary to turn, if the eggs are to be held for less than a week.
  6. With their age, the eggs loose their ability to hatch well and may even deteriorate, as no good chicks can be produced from them. It is recommended that eggs should not be held for more than 7 days in winter and 2 days in summer, prior to their being placed in the incubator. Even under the best conditions, hatchability drops rapidly, if eggs are held longer than one week.
  7. In case the eggs are pre-trayed 12 to 24 hours in advance of setting the racks, holding the trays of eggs must be covered on all sides to prevent dehydration, particularly if the trayed eggs are being warmed to room temperature before setting in the machine, as some operators like to do.


  1. Proper embryonic development and metabolism require the correct balance of oxygen supply, carbon dioxide removal, heat and moisture. All sides of the eggs must be exposed to uniform conditions. The essentials for good incubation, therefore, include correct levels of temperature, humidity, supply and air circulation, periodic turning and careful sanitation and fumigation.
  2. Even though approximately half of all oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide elimination, animal heat production etc. occurs during the hatching period alone, the success of the hatch is not determined in the hatcher. Unless conditions of incubation have been right throughout the development of the embryo in the incubator, no hatcher can produce miracles and salvage the hatch.


  1. Of all the factors of incubation, temperature is the most dramatic in terms of its affect and is the most important single factor. Improper temperature can retard or accelerate the hatch and thereby greatly affect its quality as well as percentage. Hatch in time is very important. Too much of an extreme in temperature, either above or below normal, can kill the entire hatch.


  1. Humidity plays a vital role in the percentage of hatch and even more so in the quality of hatch. The combination of too high a humidity in both setter and hatcher can result in drowning the chicks in the shell. Too low humidity in incubator will result in 'dry sticks' Too high a humidity in hatcher during the first twenty-four to thirty-six hours can result in rough and unhealed navels, although this condition is more frequently due to excessive incubator temperature. Too low a humidity in the hatcher can result in chicks which pip but fail to get out of the shell.

Air Circulation

  1. Proper circulation of air is the key to control temperature and humidity. It is essential that the three factors of temperature, humidity and air circulation be properly co-related for supply of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide.
  2. An egg which is both fertile and high in viability will hatch even in the face of astonishing abuse. An egg which although fertile, is low in viability, will hatch only if all the conditions are favorable. The greatest source for success or failure in incubation are the eggs which are marginal in viability. Such eggs will hatch if everything along the line is 100%.
  3. It is not easy to remember as to what was done to the incubtion three weeks before. Careful record is therefore, essential to obtain maximum results. The method by which eggs were handled, conditions of temperature, humidity and ventilator settings used throughout the incubation period, should be recorded. Then you are in a position to analyze your results in an attempt to determine what might have been the cause of any deficiency in your hatch. To improve your hatchability, carry out a careful post mortem of the eggs which fail to hatch. Such post morterns require time, but they will pay handsome dividends. Through an analysis of your records and of all the factors of the incubation, you will be able to correct your procedures so as to prevent recurrences of any condition which caused trouble.
  4. It is advisable to maintain accurate record of the following data in respect of the incubation:-
    • Temperature reading-morning and evening.
    • Humidity once a day.
    • Method of ventilations, positions of rota-vent openings.
    • Position of eggs set.
    • Number of eggs set.
    • Number of infertile eggs.
    • Number of dead germs.
    • Number of chicks hatched.
    • Number of deformed/crippled chicks.
  1. Eggs clear no blood
      A. Eggs infertile due to:
    1. Males sterile or poor hatchability heredity in flock.
    2. Too many or too fewmales. Males fighting with each other.
    3. Males too old
    4. Inadequate nutrition or insufficient water (or water too cold) Flock may show, poor fleshing in males & females shrunken wattles and combs in males.
    5. Birds too closely confined.
    6. Seasonal decline in fertility in late summer and fall
    7. Large Combs and wattles in males interfering with eating and drinking
    8. Disease in the flock
  2. Eggs Candling clear.
    1. Eggs over heated or held at too high temperature.
    2. Improper incubator tem perature at earliest stage of incubation.
    3. Improper fumigation too much fumigant, fumigant not cleared from machine soon enough or eggs fumigated in the incubation period
    4. Breeding flock out of condition (frozen combs disease).
    5. Improper nutrition of flock.
    6. Poor hatchability heredity in flock
  3. Many dead germs
    1. Temperature too high or too low in incubator
    2. Lack of ventilations
    3. Improper turning of eggs
  4. Chicks fully formed but dead without pipping.
    1. Low average humidity in incubator, too low or too high a humidity at transfer time in the hatcher.
  5. Eggs pipped but chicks dead in shell
    1. Low average humidity. This is the most probable cause.
    2. Inadequate ventilation or excessive fumigation during course of hatch.
    3. Low average
  6. Sticky chicks, chicks smeared with eggs contents
    1. Low average temperature
    2. Average humidity too high.
    3. Inadequate ventilation or improper fumigation of eggs in incubator or excessive fumigation in the hatcher.
  7. Dry Sticks shell sticking to chicks
    1. Eggs dried down too much.
    2. Low humidity at hatching time.
  8. Chicks hatching too early with bloody navels.
    1. Temperature too high.
  9. Rough or poorly healed navals
    1. high temperature or wide temperature variation, cubation and hatching cycle.
    2. Excessive humidity in hatcher after transfer.
  10. Chicks too small
    1. Low humidity.
  11. Large, soft bodies mushly chicks, dead on trays with bad odous.
    1. Low average temperature
    2. Poor ventilation
    3. Omphalatia (vavel infection)
  12. Weak chicks
    1. Excessive fumigation in the hatcher
    2. Respiratory diseases as bronchitis or Newcastle.
  13. Short down on chicks.
    1. High temperature
    2. Low humidity
    3. Excessive ventilation at hatching time.
  14. Gasping chicks.
    1. Average temperature too low.
    2. Eggs held too long. Improper gathering, holding of eggs.
  15. Delayed hatch eggs not starting, to pip until 21 st day or later
    1. Excessive temperature in hatcher.
    2. Inadequate ventilation in hatcher.
  16. Draggy hatch some chicks early.
    1. Improper gathering, holding of eggs.
  17. Crippled and malformed chicks
    1. Cross beak
    2. Missing eye
    3. Wry neck
    4. Crooked toes
    5. Sparddle legs
    6. Heredity
    7. Abnormal & rare. May be due to excessive temperature
    8. Wry neck suspected as matter of nutrition. Not fully known.
    9. Improper temperature. This can also be caused by setting too few eggs per tray permitting too much freedom of movement to chicks.
    10. Caused by hatching trays which are too smooth. Almost never encountered in Karamsar Incubators.
  18. Malformed chicks or poor hatch.
    1. Excessive number of malpositions among dead in shells
    2. Improper turning or setting
    3. Inadequate ventilation
    4. Abnormally high or Abnormally low incubator temperature.
    5. Insufficient moisture.
    6. Heredity & breeding
    7. Improper nutrition
    8. Non-Pourous shell either from natural causes involved in heredity and nutrition or from foreign material on the shell.
    9. Damage to eggs in transit from one place to another

Careful Culling and flock Selection for high hatchaability.

Raise males together. Use 4 to 7 males per 100 females with light breed chickens,

5 to 8 males per 100 females with heavy breeds. 8 to 13 males per 100 females for turkeys.

Do not use old males, unless proved valuable breeders.

Use properly balanced feed of high quality. Provide adequate waterers of good design well distributed, so that, all birds can have easy access to fresh water.

Provide adequate floor space per bird in housing.

Use early hatched cockerettes timed for best maturity.

Dub males to prevent this problem, and also improve fertility.

Carry out approved disease control practice.

Gather eggs often, cool properly and quickly.

Proper conditions for egg holding be observed.

Gather eggs often. Coo! properly and quickly. Refer instructions for egg holding.

Check accuracy of thermometers, Operate incubator at proper temperature.

Refer instructions regarding fumigation of eggs in the incubator.

Do not set eggs from birds with frozen combs or from diseased birds, particularly those infected with pullorum or other salmocilla diseases.

Feed properly balanced ration of high quality.

Careful culling and flock selection for high hatchability, improve breeding for high hatchability.

Check accuracy of thermometers. Operate incubator at proper temperature.

Provide adequate ventilation of the incubator at and proper openings of the Incubator rota vents.

Turn eggs at regular intervals.

Maintain proper humidity levels throughout incubation and hatching cycle.

Maintain proper humidity levels throughout incubation & hatching cycle.

Provide adequate ventilated room & proper openings of rota vents of machine.

Maintain proper temperature throughout incubating & hatching cycle.

Use proper operating temperature.

Maintain proper humidity levels throughout incubation and hatching cycle.

Provide adequate ventilation of the incubator room and proper opening of the incubator rota vents. Also refer instructions regarding fumigation.

Proper ventilation and humidity throughout incubation and hatching cycle.

Proper humidity levels throughout incubation and hatching cycle.

Maintain proper temperature levels throughout incubating & hatching cycle.

Maintain proper temperature levels throughout in

Use less humidity for first 24 to 36 hours after transfer.

Maintain proper humidity level throughout incubation & hatching cycle.

Maintain proper humidity level throughout incubation & hatching cycle.

Provide adequate ventilation of the incubation room& proper openings of the incubator and hatcher rota vents.

Thoroughly clean and fumigate hatcher between hatches Fumigate hatcher at double or triple strength between hatches until trouble eliminated then return to normal strength fumigation of hatcher between hatches. Fumigate eggs in incubator.

Do not permit temperature in hatcher to be too high. If chicks are to be held in hatcher, reduce temperature after hatch is completed.

Provide adequate incubator room ventilation. Maintain adequate rota vent openings in hatcher. Open top ventilator as instructed in this booklet.

Maintain proper temperature levels throughout incubation and hatching cycle.

Maintain proper humidity levels throughout incubating and hatching cycle.

Reduce openings of hatcher rota-vents. Restrict opening of top ventilations. Do not restrict so far as to permit animal heat to build temperature above safe level.

See instructions on fumigation during the course of hatch.

Carry out approved disease control practice.

Maintain correct temperature throughout incubation & hatching cycle.

Try not to hold eggs more than 3 days.

Eggs must be gathered frequently, cooled quickly and held at proper temperature and humidity before setting.

Careful flock culling

Matter of chance.

Maintain proper temperature levels throughout incubating and hatching cycle. Do not set too few eggs per tray.

Use crinoline cloth in hatch trays.

Set eggs small end down only. Turn eggs at regular intervals eight times daily.

Provide adequate ventilation of the incubator room and proper openings of the incubator and hatcher rota-vents.

Maintain proper temperature level throughout incubator cycle.

Maintain proper humidity level in the incubator.

Careful culling & flock selection for high quality.

Use properly balanced feed of high quality.

Careful culling & flock selection, properly balanced feed, balance feed of high quality, proper care of eggs.

Hatching eggs must be sent in good quality well-protected egg cases, with small ends down. Avoid rough handling.


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